Social Sciences Division

Salient Research Achievements

(a) Sector analysis 

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  • Statistical analysis of pre and post disease scenarios of shrimp farming has revealed that the expansion of area and fluctuations in production are highly variant in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Goa.  However, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu states exhibited high variation with respect to expansion of area and fluctuation in production in post disease period.  Linear regression analysis resulted in a negative and significant coefficient for disease dummy variable indicating that there is a significant negative effect of disease on production.
  • Development of Export demand models for Indian Seafood to USA and Japan: Multiple linear regression analysis of exports of India seafood to USA as dependent variable and population, RGDP, exchange rate, total fish production, unit value and trend variables as independent variable (R= 0.93) indicated good fit, but the coefficient estimates for   population and total fish production exhibited negative sign. A demand model has been developed for the Indian seafood to Japan. The major demand determinants included are population of the country, total India’s fish production, real GDP per capita (at constant prices) of the country, unit value realization, exchange rate and trend. The analysis resulted (R2 = 95.4%) indicated good fit, but the coefficient estimates for   population, real GDP  were negative.
  • Study on growth of shrimp farming in India: Growth of shrimp has showed significant fluctuations in terms of area, production and productivity over time. The study utilized nonparametric regression method for computation of growth rates. Results indicated   that the methodology has been successful in extracting required information from the data set. It may be noted that there are two broad clusters among the states following commercial shrimp farming: Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh form one cluster and rest the other.  The second cluster can be sub-grouped into traditional farming states, viz. Kerala, Karnataka and West Bengal as one sub-group and others as individual states.
  • A study on export performance, competitiveness and future prospects of Indian shrimp: The secondary data on shrimp exports has been collected from MPEDA and domestic prices are collected from Tamil Nadu Fisheries Development Corporation for years 2001-2004. Nominal protection coefficients and instability indices of prices of Indian frozen shrimp exports were computed for the years 2001-2004. The analysis discloses that in general nominal protection coefficient values are lowest during June, July and August months. Coppock’s instability indices for domestic prices ranged from 4.9 to 8.8 and 5.7 to 8.5 for export frozen shrimp prices.
  • Commodity concentration and Geographical Spread of Indian Seafood exports: Commodity wise and Country wise seafood exports data was collected from various issues of marine products exports review, MPEDA for the period 1981-82 and 2003-2004. The analysis revealed that the commodity concentration is gradually decreased from 87 percent in the early 80’s is decreased to 68 per cent indicating that country is slowly diversifying different seafood products for exports.  Geographic concentration is also gradually decreased from 72 per cent to 50 percent indicating that country is diversifying its exports to different countries.
  • A Study of Aqua Consultants: Thirty three independent aqua-consultants were interviewed and they were categorized based on their (i) occupational structure, (ii)their capacity building areas, to develop a mechanism for getting ground level feedback from them on regular basis.
  • Market channels for high count shrimps: A study conducted on market channels for high count shrimp farming in Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh revealed that farmers are adopting the following practices: low density stocking of 2 nos./m2 with uniform size seed(5g) nursery reared hatchery seed, crop duration of 120 days, employ technicians, harvest the crop only when shrimps reach 20 counts to get better rate. More than disease risks, loss of realization of profits was the major problem faced by the farmers arising from slump in farm gate prices resulting from lowering global demand and wild fluctuations in dollar-rupee exchange rates. Policy support is required to mitigate this risk.
  • Domestic markets for fish: The present fish marketing channel involves 6-8 intermediaries taking 42 to 58% of consumer rupee as marketing margin. The consumers are unsatisfied with marketing infrastructure ands unhygienic handling of fish at city markets. As traditional fish markets are owned by private individuals/ organizations the modernizing plans are difficult to implement. The fish consumption drops to 15 to 25% according to day of the week, moon phase, auspicious months and hence aquaculture production if planned for domestic market should be synchronised with output reaching market in peak seasons of demand.

(b) Extension, stakeholder interaction and requirement analysis 

  • The World Bank funded National Agricultural Technology Project (2000-2005) entitled, “Institution Village Linkage Programme for Technology Assessment and Refinement in the Coastal Agro-Eco System of Tiruvallur district of Tamil Nadu” was implemented at Kattur village in Tamil Nadu. The technological interventions were introduced to refine the existing technologies to fit into the requirements of farming systems in the village through Farmer-Scientist Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and thereby ensuring the adoption of technologies in the surrounding villages. On-farm trials and demonstration of CIBASTIM (shrimp immunostimulants for the growth and disease resistance), low cost indigenous shrimp feed and mud crab fattening were undertaken. Development of Sustainable Livelihood Index (SLI) for evaluating different farming systems were some of the aspects studied under this project
  • Socio economic survey of 200 women beneficiaries were recorded to study the effort and contribution made by the women in aquaculture sector. The information on the following heads, village and resource map, seasonal calendar, fish availability and livelihood analysis, motivating and facilitating factors, time management, decision  making practices among the respondents, stakeholders priorities and problems, ranking institution according to their perceived importance, attitude about women self help groups and problems encountered have been collected.
  • For the assessment of gender participation and status of women entrepreneurs in aquaculture, primary and secondary data were collected from 13 districts of Tamil Nadu. Twelve case studies of women entrepreneurs were documented. Crab fattening was demonstrated to women SHGs in Orissa under transfer of technology mode.
  • To provide alternative source of employment to the coastal women SHGs communities at Bhuvaneswar, a collaborative work programme with Directorate of Research on Women in Agriculture  has been initiated at Moisa, Gangadarpur and  Mirjapur villages where six  women SHGs with 100 women and 7 men practice crab fattening both in pond and with bamboo cages Crab fattening demonstration programme was conducted with two of the SHGs.
  • A demonstration and awareness programme was conducted among the Women Self Help Groups of Edakalanadu Taluk, Kadappakam Post, Cheiyur Taluk, Kancheepuram District Tamilnadu, on the adoption of crab fattening and culture technology and fish culture technology as a livelihood option for the coastal women SHGs.
  • CIBA Crab Feed was also popularized among the crab farming women SHGs of Allambarai Kottai, Edakalainadu, Kadappakkam, Kancheepuram District, Tamilnadu. Two trials and demonstrations on ‘CIBA Crab Feed’ was conducted among the Women SHGs and Youth Men SHGs crab farmers of Korraikuppam and Sattankuppam, Pallaveerkadu ( Pulicat lake), Thiruvallur District Tamilnadu.  CIBA Crab Feed was demonstrated to the Men SHGs crab farmers of Jamilabath Village, Pallaveerkadu (Pulicat lake), Thiruvallur District, TN, with 2 cages with nine compartments each during 28th September 2007 - 24th October 2007.
  • On farm demonstration programme on ‘‘Crab Fattening,  Crab  Feed  Development  and ‘Value Added Fish Products  Development’ was organized during 5th June - 11th June 2008 and 18th - 27th  Feb 2009 and  200 women beneficiaries were trained.
  • A comprehensive farm survey conducted with 1008 shrimp aqua farmers in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu States revealed that 90% of aqua farmers depend on trade representatives for technical information. Fellow farmers, consultants, farm publications, MPEDA and DoF were the information sources respectively for 76%, 24%, 18%, 14 and 14% of farmers.   To address shortcomings in the present public sector extension mechanisms, a more participatory operational model of technology transfer has been developed.
  • Farmers consult farm opinion leaders for any information and to confirm the information received by them from other sources. Employing sociometry methodology aqua farm opinion leaders were identified in three coastal districts of Tamil Nadu for sensitizing and capacity building.
  • Investigation carried out among the shrimp farmers of Andhra Pradesh (AP) and Tamil Nadu (TN) to assess the ‘adoption-gap’ in Good Management Practices (GMPs) of shrimp culture has found that an average adoption gap of 32 % and 28% was noticed in AP and TN respectively. GMPs which ensure successful culture were voluntarily adopted and GMPs which addresses environmental and food safety issues like proper site selection, conversion of other land uses, overcrowding of farms, lack of pond for reservoir and ETS, use of bore well and low stocking density were not adopted.
  • Survey on the adoption of shrimp seed production guidelines in 96 shrimp hatcheries along the east coast of India in Andhra Pradesh (AP) and Tamil Nadu (TN) has clearly indicated that 87% and 82% of hatcheries respectively in AP and TN had adopted the guidelines specified by the Coastal Aquaculture Authority of India. The study indicated the need for (i) review of guidelines in the light of the practical problems faced and (ii)a certification programme for hatchery operators and PCR labs. The need for  a partnership between the shrimp farmers and hatchery operators to jointly formulate hatchery protocols to produce and supply quality seed, and to fix a premium price for the disease free seed which would  compensate the cost of adopting the agreed protocols were identified as priorities.
  • An investigation conducted to assess the extent of linkage between fisheries departments and scientists of research institutions using summated rating procedure and focus group discussions revealed that the linkage existed between the research and extension systems was consultative not collaborative as desired. It was suggested that a model of interdependence based on the strengths of both public and private sector need to be evolved to strengthen the research and extension linkage.
  • The survey on performance of 12 agri-clinics in three districts of Uttar Pradesh was completed to ascertain the critical success factors in order to find out the possibility of replicating the same for establishing aqua clinics in the coastal regions.
  • Cluster farming and dynamics of its success in shrimp aquaculture was studied with a sample of aqua farmers’ societies and creek based farmers associations respectively in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu during the period. Farmers groups enforced collective seed procurement, simultaneous stocking and non-use of banned antibiotics in their farm clusters. Tangible deliverables, collectiveness, committed leadership and strong social cohesiveness were the critical factors that determined the success of these associations.
  • Farmers Meets, brainstorming sessions, training programmes, exhibitions, field level group discussions and on-farm training / workshop were organized in different regions of the country.

(c) ICT for extension 

  • Evaluation of existing web kiosks operated under ITC’s e-Choupal model indicated that if these are to be used by small farmers, the present model needs to be modified.
  • Assessment for change in market service quality affected by ICT aquachoupal model in West Godavari (WG) District was completed.  The results shows that there has been significant improvement in service quality induce by aquachoupal in West Godavari.
  • A heuristic evaluation exercise of websites of ICAR fisheries research institutions was completed by bringing together webmasters of ICAR fisheries research institutes and stakeholders in a common platform in the form of a National workshop. A draft guideline on uniformity in content and web design methodologies and standards was finalized. Domain Name, ICAR Logo, Contents, Home Page, Linking and farmers’ corner were the major points of discussion. A digital repository and on line data bases of personnel details, GPF and EL and Aquaculture production details are being developed. This is being carried out as part of an on going Network project with NBPGR, New Delhi as lead centre. CIBA is taken as representative of Fisheries Division.

Scientific staff list

Dr.V.S.Chandrasekaran, Principal Scientist & SIC 
Email: 
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Phone:+91- 044 - 24618817, Ext-120

Dr.C.V. Sairam, Principal Scientist 
Dr.T.Ravisankar, Principal Scientist 
Dr. Ms. B.Shanthi, Principal Scientist 
Dr. Ms. D.Deboral Vimala,  Principal Scientist 
Dr.M.Kumaran, Principal Scientist 
Dr. Ms. P.Mahalakshmi, Senior Scientist & OIC AKM Unit 
Shri. J. Ashok Kumar, Scientist
Dr. R. Geetha, Scientist
Smt. K.C. Neethu, Scientist

 

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